The study “Individualization in Vocational Education and Training – Denmark” is a part of the national Slovenian project “Modernization of Vocational Education and Training”, considering international experiences from countries that have gone through the process of implementing individualization.

The National Slovenian Institute for Vocational Education and Training ordered the study.

The study was elaborated by Regina Lamscheck-Nielsen, who has extensive knowledge of the Danish VET system, paired with practice-based experiences, results from a wide range of innovation projects, as well as insight into VET in Europe.

The study brings in findings from the implementation phase in Denmark from the year 2000 until now, extended with adjustments and information about the further development during the last two decades.

The descriptions are based on desk research, containing descriptive and analytical literature as well as freely accessible reports and legislation; see list of references. Four interviewees from three types of vocational colleges have shared their experiences from the implementation of individualization and given their recommendations.


Table of content

Context Denmark
– Worth knowing about the Danish VET system
(1) Individualization on system level
– According to Act of VET (22/01/2020)
– Main ordinance, regulations and guidelines
– Incentives
– (1a) Obstacles during the implementation of individualization
– Obstacles on local level
(2) Didactic concept
– Didactic on local level
(3) Implementation on VET college level
– Implementation on local level
– (3a) Supportive methods and tools
– Methods and tools on local level
(4) Quality assurance (QA)
– QA on local level
(5) Individual study plan
– Individual study plans on local level
– (5a) Strengths and weaknesses
(6) Social partners
– Social partners on local level
(7) VET teacher education
– Highlights of teachers´ empowerment
(8) Learnings and recommendations
– Literature and reports
– Online resources